José de Alencar’s Iracema: A Tale of Love, Betrayal & Brazil

Edwin Johan Santana Gaarder

Iracema is a Romantic novel by José de Alencar which was first published in 1865. It is set in the Northeastern Brazilian state of Ceará during the first Portuguese incursions into the Americas. Edwin Johan Santana Gaarder looks at how the novel depicts the early years of the Brazilian nation.

José de Alencar’s novel tells the story of Iracema, a native virgin, and Martim, a Portuguese colonizer who, despite the cultural barriers that separate them, fall in love. As a result, Iracema is forced to abandon her tribe, but her illusions of peaceful coexistence are shattered when she is herself abandoned by Martim, left only with their child. The tragic sorrow and sense of betrayal she feels eventually lead to her death.
Iracema (an anagram for América) has been read as an allegory for the birth of the Brazilian nation. Alencar, who was a leading figure amongst the Brazilian Romanticists, incorporates themes like colonialism, miscegenation, the clash of cultures, the war against indigenous peoples and migration. In the Brazilian state of Ceará and its capital Fortaleza, Alencar’s novella is treated with even more patriotic reverence, with statues of Iracema and Martim embellishing several points of Fortaleza’s beaches. Roads, buildings and neighborhoods named after characters, places and events in the novella are also common in Ceará’s capital.
Alencar’s narrative uses predictable formulae, yet largely avoiding the clichés of Romanticism. The natural beauty and grace of the native virgin, Iracema is introduced to us by means of a bath, a scene of baptismal sensuality to which we are awkward guests. We share with the European intruder the guilt of the voyeur, but also the enchanting pain of being immobilized by that which is different and unknown, of being surprised over our own vulnerability. The exoticism, the difference between the European imperialist and the native virgin, induces the fascination between them, causing her lips to tremble: ‘Iracema tinha o lábio trêmulo, e úmida a pálpebra’. [Iracema’s lips were trembling, and her eyelids were humid]. To the modern reader, their passion follows the age-old truism according to which opposites naturally attract each other.
There is, moreover, an undertone of psychological realism that allows us to suspend our disbelief. The reader could perceive that, alongside the fantasies conjured up in a distant setting, the stupor of tropical drugs and the mysticism of a primitive culture, the novella is anchored by a familiar reality: a fiancée and a home. The foreigner reader thus chooses to uncover the secret of the virgin – ‘o segredo da jurema’ [jurema’s secret] – and indulge himself in a tropical dream. Will his blood continue to boil? Will he forever fear the eyes of his innocent lover? Or will he find himself saturated with pleasure and filled with a more powerful longing: ‘a saudade da pátria’ [homeland’s nostalgia]?
Lá o espera a virgem loura dos castos afetos; aqui lhe sorri a virgem morena dos ardentes amores.

[There he is expected by the blond virgin of chaste tenderness, while here the swarthy virgin of burning passion smiles at him]
In the story, the moment of sexual betrayal is interplay between the cultural constructs built around the two races: white, dark; blonde, brunette; Christian, Indian; pragmatic, impulsive. It is also an example in microcosm of the tragic consequences of a failed relationship between two societies that never completely learnt to respect and trust each other, and also portrays the difficulties of melding different cultures. This dysfunctional coming together of cultures is intrinsic to the fear of the wise old Pajé: ‘…foi algum funesto presságio para a raça de seus filhos, que assim ecoou n’alma de Araquém?’ [… was it a tragic presage to his sons’ race echoing in Araquém’s soul?]

[Now he could live with Iracema and reap from her lips the kiss there growing among smiles, just as the fruit from the flower’s corolla. He could love her and absorb this love’s honey and perfume, without poisoning the virgin’s womb.]
However, Martim proves himself to be as misguided as the subtitle of Iracema – ‘a virgem dos lábios de mel’ [the honey lips virgin] – because the virgin is only the heroine of half her novella; the other half is dedicated to Iracema, the wife and mother. Passion is the prelude to perennial love for the Romanticists. Iracema sacrifices the blood of her brothers for the sake of her union with Martim; from that day onwards they share one flesh. In the eyes of Martim, by contrast, passion belongs to the realm of dreams:
Os beijos de Iracema são doces no sonho; o guerreiro branco encheu deles sua alma. Na vida, os lábios da virgem de Tupã amargam e doem como o espinho da jurema.

[In his dreams Iracema’s kisses are sweet; the white warrior filled his soul with them. In life, the lips of the Tupã virgin embitter and hurt like the jurema’s thorn.]

Domestic happiness is superceded, in the male, by the graver concerns of patriotism, war and friendship. Despite finding himself in a utopia of Edenic love with a wife simultaneously beautiful, caring and fertile, he is unable to find peace and satisfaction. He is restless: ‘Quando Iracema brincava pela praia, os olhos do guerreiro retiravam-se dela para se estenderem pela imensidade dos mares´. [Whenever Iracema was enjoying the beach, the warrior’s eyes would deviate from her and get lost into the sea’s immensity.] His abandonment of her testifies her status as the symbol of his domestic imprisonment.
Iracema’s faithfulness is tainted with the poison from a heart that cannot be faithful, so she becomes jealous and suicidal. Her child, born in a time of war from a restless father and an abandoned mother, is the victim of a home that has no organic integrity. Iracema’s son, Moacir, is brought up on a diet drained of everything but suffering: ‘O sangue da infeliz diluía-se todo nas lágrimas incessantes que lhe não estancavam nos olhos; pouco chegava aos seios, onde se forma o primeiro licor da vida’. [Unhappy, her blood would dilute completely within her unceasing tears, little would reach her bosom, where the first liquor of life is molded]
Yet, there is hope in the death of Iracema, who sacrifices the last drops of her lifeblood to feed the child of her union with Martim. She is the mother of a new race – and of Ceará – albeit cursed with the fate of migrant exiles: ‘O primeiro cearense, ainda no berço, emigrava da terra da pátria. Havia aí a predestinação de uma raça?´ [The first person born in Ceará, still in the cradle, emigrated from his homeland. Is this a race’s predestination?] Martim discovers, at long last, that in his marriage he had found his home: ‘… as terras, que foram de sua felicidade, são agora de amarga saudade’. [… the lands to which his happiness belonged now belong to a bitter nostalgia.]

landscape with balloons floating in the air


Connect with like-minded people on our premium trips curated by local insiders and with care for the world

Since you are here, we would like to share our vision for the future of travel - and the direction Culture Trip is moving in.

Culture Trip launched in 2011 with a simple yet passionate mission: to inspire people to go beyond their boundaries and experience what makes a place, its people and its culture special and meaningful — and this is still in our DNA today. We are proud that, for more than a decade, millions like you have trusted our award-winning recommendations by people who deeply understand what makes certain places and communities so special.

Increasingly we believe the world needs more meaningful, real-life connections between curious travellers keen to explore the world in a more responsible way. That is why we have intensively curated a collection of premium small-group trips as an invitation to meet and connect with new, like-minded people for once-in-a-lifetime experiences in three categories: Culture Trips, Rail Trips and Private Trips. Our Trips are suitable for both solo travelers, couples and friends who want to explore the world together.

Culture Trips are deeply immersive 5 to 16 days itineraries, that combine authentic local experiences, exciting activities and 4-5* accommodation to look forward to at the end of each day. Our Rail Trips are our most planet-friendly itineraries that invite you to take the scenic route, relax whilst getting under the skin of a destination. Our Private Trips are fully tailored itineraries, curated by our Travel Experts specifically for you, your friends or your family.

We know that many of you worry about the environmental impact of travel and are looking for ways of expanding horizons in ways that do minimal harm - and may even bring benefits. We are committed to go as far as possible in curating our trips with care for the planet. That is why all of our trips are flightless in destination, fully carbon offset - and we have ambitious plans to be net zero in the very near future.

Winter Sale Offers on Our Trips

Incredible Savings

Edit article