The Prehistoric Super Fish: Amazing Facts About Stingrays

Stingray | © Becker1999/Flickr
Ellie Griffiths

Commonly mistaken for a deadly and lethal animal, the stingray has gained a bad reputation over the years despite actually being friendly creatures. Although there are around 200 species of stingrays, ranging from 70 centimetres to four metres in length, they do not intend to harm you. So, as the famous Mr Ray says, ‘climb aboard explorers’ and find out what you need to know about the stingray.

They are not naturally aggressive

Stingrays are seen as being quite playful creatures with the abundance of photographs shared by people who have been photobombed by their smiling faces. The only time stingrays have been known to attack is when a diver either swims in front of or directly over them, causing their escape route to be blocked. If they are not seen swimming around, they are often found hiding in the sandy shallow sea floor – so be sure to shuffle your feet along the ground to avoid stepping on them and being stung.


They are cousins of sharks

They can’t actually see their prey

As aforementioned, their eyes are placed poorly on their body. Whilst their mouth, gills and nostrils are located underneath (the bottom of their body), their eyes are located on top. As a result, they make use of their senses and smells to find food. So, despite them looking like they are constantly smiling at you from beneath, you are actually just looking at their nostrils and mouth.


Their spear is similar to a steak knife

Most species of stingrays have either one or more barbed stingers shaped like a spear at the end of their tail that hold venom in them. When stingrays feel threatened, they use this spear to strike. Acting like a steak knife, the stingray only ever uses it as a form of self-defence. Having only ever caused two reported deaths, one being Steve Irwin, their stingers are more harmful to those that threaten them.

Their venom has been used by dentists

As the stingray feeds on molluscs, crustaceans and small fish – by catching them in their mouth, crushing them and eating them with their surprisingly powerful jaws – their venom isn’t needed to kill them. Rather, it is only used in self-defence. As the venom is largely protein-based, it causes their prey great pain due to an alteration of their heart rate and respiration abilities occurring when stung. Being protein-based rather than poisonous, it has been found that dentists living in Ancient Greek times would use the venom extracted from the stingrays as an anaesthetic!


They are the birds of the sea

Whilst there are several different species of stingray, the way they move through the water is one of two known ways. The first is swimming in a wave-like motion, almost like surfing the currents to move around the ocean. Whilst most stingrays have adopted this style, many stingrays would rather flap their sides up and down like wings, making it seem like they are flying through the water like birds in the sky.

They’ve been around since the Jurassic

Although they lack bones, making it hard to find any fossils other than scales and teeth, it is suggested that the first ray dates back over 150 million years ago to the Lower Jurassic Period. Outliving the dinosaurs, all major taxa of the stingray had been established by the Paleocene Era, 100 million years later.


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