11 Reasons Why Catalonia Is a Unique Region in Spain

Catalonia has its own flag as well as its own language and traditions
Catalonia has its own flag as well as its own language and traditions | © Keith Hawkins / Getty Images
Tara Jessop

Catalonia merged with Spain in 1469, but has attempted to separate itself in modern times. Though the region endured heavy repression under the Fascist rule of Spain in the mid-20th century, it retains its own language and traditions to this day.

Catalonia is in northern Spain, which is greener than the rest of the arid country

Language

The autonomous region has its own language, Catalan, which is its joint official language, along with Spanish. The teaching of Catalan is mandatory in schools, and teachers, doctors and other public-sector workers are legally required to use it. Catalan is strongly associated with national pride – if you speak to someone in Spanish in Catalonia they might well answer you in Catalan. The language is spoken in other territories, such as Valencia, the Balearic Islands, Andorra (where it is the official language), Sardinia and areas of southern France.

History

Unique Christmas traditions

You may not have heard of the Christmas crapper, but this figurine of a man relieving himself is one of Catalonia’s most beloved Christmas traditions and a staple of many a nativity scene. El caganer (literally ‘the crapper’) is traditionally depicted as a peasant wearing the traditional Catalan red cap, and is said to bring good luck for the year ahead. These days, caganers come in all kinds of modern versions, depicting everyone from Barack Obama to Cristiano Ronaldo with their trousers down.

The caganer is a Catalan character who typically appears in nativity scenes in Catalonia

Human towers

Continuing the unusual traditions theme, castells, or human towers, are a unique Catalan tradition that was given UNESCO World Heritage status in 2010. Towns across Catalonia hold competitions to see who can make the tallest human tower, an activity that is particularly popular during fiestas. The towers usually comprise of men, women and children at the top, and are a sight to behold as people scramble over each other and balance precariously on each other’s shoulders. Definitely not one for the faint-hearted.

The Castellers de la Vila de Gràcia build their human towers during the city’s La Mercè holiday

Cuisine

While you can enjoy plenty of tapas in Catalonia, there are certain dishes and drinks that come specifically from the region. Cava is perhaps Catalonia’s most famous export, with the sparkling white wine enjoyed throughout Spain and across the world. The region is also famous for calçots, a kind of spring onion that even has its own festival, and its take on the classic paella (originally from Valencia), which in this northern area is called fideua and uses noodles instead of rice. There’s also the classic pa amb tomàquet (‘bread with tomato’) – the quintessential Catalan breakfast of bread with tomato rubbed on it and a drizzle of olive oil over the top. Delicious.

Pa amb tomàquet (bread with tomato) is a typical breakfast here

Gaudí

No one can visit Barcelona, Catalonia’s biggest city, without noticing the huge influence of the artist Antoni Gaudí. The Catalan architect was born in the town of Reus in 1852 and became one of the most famous practitioners of Catalan Modernism. His structures pepper the skyline, from the iconic and as yet unfinished Sagrada Família and the mosaic masterpiece of Parc Güell to La Pedrera, Gaudí’s dreamy vision come to life.

Park Guell in Barcelona is an excellent example of Antoni Gaudí’s eccentric architecture style

Bank holidays

Catalonia has some of its own unique bank holidays that are not celebrated across Spain. For instance, La Mercè is the celebration of Barcelona’s patron saint Our Lady of Mercy, or La Mare de Déu de la Mercè in Catalan. Another example is Sant Esteve, celebrated on 26 December in Catalonia and Catalan-speaking regions such as Valencia and the Balearic Islands. While each of Spain’s autonomous provinces has its own local bank holidays, the Catalan bank holidays are taken seriously, as an assertion of the individual Catalan culture.

Music

Though flamenco is often seen as the epitome of Spanish music, there’s no tradition of this ancient art form to be found in Catalonia. While there are plenty of flamenco tablaos in Barcelona and other major cities, these mostly appeared to answer the tourist demand for ‘Spanish’ entertainment. Instead, Catalonia has its own music and dances, such as the sardana – a traditional group dance performed at popular celebrations and musically accompanied by a specific type of band known as coral.

The Sardana dance is typical of the region

Economy

The Catalan economy is in a very different state to the rest of the Spanish economy, and has for a long time been the industrial powerhouse of the country. From the Industrial Revolution onwards, Catalonia specialised in the production and trade of textiles. More recently, the region has become a centre for communication technologies and even finance, with much of the industry concentrated in Barcelona.

Politics

There is a long history of tension between the Catalan government and the Spanish federal administration. Catalonia has its own judicial system as well as its own civil law. The Catalans also have their own police force – alongside the Guardia Civil and Policia Nacional – known as the Mossos d’Esquadra. Catalonia, along with Navarre and the Basque Country, are the provinces in Spain with the most political autonomy.

Bullfighting is a contentious issue in Spain, with many younger generations and progressive people opposing the cruelty to animals for sport

Bullfighting

Last but not least, Catalonia was the first Spanish mainland province to ban bullfighting. The Catalan Parliament voted on the ban in 2010 and the law was implemented in 2012. However, the Spanish Constitutional Court overturned the ban in 2015, claiming that it went again the Spanish constitution and that an autonomous province did not have the right to ban bullfighting outright. This has since become another highly contentious aspect of local politics and another point of antagonism between Catalonia and the Spanish federal government.

This article is an updated version of an article by Jessica Jones.

landscape with balloons floating in the air

KEEN TO EXPLORE THE WORLD?

Connect with like-minded people on our premium trips curated by local insiders and with care for the world

Since you are here, we would like to share our vision for the future of travel - and the direction Culture Trip is moving in.

Culture Trip launched in 2011 with a simple yet passionate mission: to inspire people to go beyond their boundaries and experience what makes a place, its people and its culture special and meaningful — and this is still in our DNA today. We are proud that, for more than a decade, millions like you have trusted our award-winning recommendations by people who deeply understand what makes certain places and communities so special.

Increasingly we believe the world needs more meaningful, real-life connections between curious travellers keen to explore the world in a more responsible way. That is why we have intensively curated a collection of premium small-group trips as an invitation to meet and connect with new, like-minded people for once-in-a-lifetime experiences in three categories: Culture Trips, Rail Trips and Private Trips. Our Trips are suitable for both solo travelers, couples and friends who want to explore the world together.

Culture Trips are deeply immersive 5 to 16 days itineraries, that combine authentic local experiences, exciting activities and 4-5* accommodation to look forward to at the end of each day. Our Rail Trips are our most planet-friendly itineraries that invite you to take the scenic route, relax whilst getting under the skin of a destination. Our Private Trips are fully tailored itineraries, curated by our Travel Experts specifically for you, your friends or your family.

We know that many of you worry about the environmental impact of travel and are looking for ways of expanding horizons in ways that do minimal harm - and may even bring benefits. We are committed to go as far as possible in curating our trips with care for the planet. That is why all of our trips are flightless in destination, fully carbon offset - and we have ambitious plans to be net zero in the very near future.

Winter Sale Offers on Our Trips

Incredible Savings

X
Edit article