The Caucasian languages are a remarkably diverse collection of languages vocalized by more than 10 million people around the Caucasus Mountain region lying between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. The similarity between the languages enables scholars to classify them into several families with little or no apparent relation to each other. Want to learn more about these languages? Then keep on reading!
The Caucasian languages fall into three language families
These language families are Abkhazo-Adyghian, Nakho-Dagestanian, and Kartvelian. The specific genetic associations of the Caucasian languages are still unclear on many subjects, not only regarding interrelationships of those three major groups, but also extending to some internal subgroups.
Destinations Unlocked:Let our travel expert Stefano help you find your perfect Culture trip
Looking for an expert's perspective?Uncover my top 3 recommended places from each continent on the map.
1. GuatemalaAn express adventure for those with limited time off. Prepare yourself incredible experiences. You will hike a volcano, visit mayan temples and witness a ceremony and take in beautiful colonial Antigua.
2. BelizeA quick trip not too far away for those seeking a relaxing mini break. You will have plenty of free time to relax but also some awesome activities to experience the rainforest and the caribbean sea.
3. MexicoAn exciting mini trip exploring the lesser known colonial towns of central Mexico. This is hte perfect trip for someone with limited time off and still wants to turn on explorer mode and do something different.
1. EcuadorA remarkable 8 days adventure through the Andes and the Amazon rainforest. The best choice for adventure seekers wishing to visit the 2 most iconic areas of South America, in only 1 week and no flights.
2. PeruAn alternative itinerary to classic Peru, from Cusco to Arequipa. This itinerary is great combination of highlights Cusco and Machu Picchu with the lesser known Arequipa and Colca Canyon.
1. ItalyThe ultimate Italian experience from the vibrant streets of Naples to the breathtaking sceneries of the Amalfi Coast followed by Matera and down to Puglia with its golden beaches, intense flavours and fascinating destinations.
2. ScotlandEmbark on this great adventure starting from London all the way to Scotland with a true Scottish experience made of breathtaking sceneries, whisky tasting and ..lots of fun! Ideal for train lovers and explorers.
3. PortugalA wonderful train journey around Portugal, from the romantic city of Porto to the Douro Valley, to the beautiful Aveiro all the way to Lisbon and Sintra. The perfect trip to train, culinary and culture lovers.
1. South KoreaDiscover incredible temples, mountains and modern cities on this 10 day adventure. This trip is perfect for those seeking immersion in the cuisine, culture and natural wonders of South Korea.
2. ThailandFrom Bankgok to Angkor Wat to Ho Chi Minh City and everything in between - adventure through the heart of South-East Asia. Taste the delights, see history brought to life and unwind on a Mekong River cruise.
3. Sri LankaA fantastic adventure that showcases Sri Lanka's fantastic landscapes, wildlife and flavours. With 3 epic rail journeys, 3 UNESCO heritage sites and time to relax, this trip has loads to offer at a great price
1. MoroccoAn epic journey across Morocco: from Casablanca to Marrakech, through the blue city of Chefchaouen to the wonders of the desert and deep to the High Atlas Mountains - this trip has it all! Ideal for true explorers!
2. EgyptFrom Cairo to Aswan, this trip brings the land of the pharaohs to life. You'll visit the Pyramids, Valley of the Kings and Luxor Temple and cruise down the Nile in style. This is the perfect way to explore Egypt.
The Kartvelian language family includes four languages
Georgian, Megrelian (Mingrelian), Svan and Laz (or Chan) are part of the Kartvelian language family.
The dialects of Georgian fall into two groups
East and West Georgian dialects have slight differences between each other.
Only Georgian has ancient literary tradition
The Georgian language was believed to be created during the fifth century AD. It’s presumed that old Georgian script was derived from the Greek alphabet.
Mengrelian, Svan and Laz languages are unwritten
The Samegrelo and Zemo Svaneti regions use Georgian as a literary language. Laz, spoken on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea, uses Georgian as a literary language on Georgia’s territory. They use Turkish in Turkey’s territory.
Svan language has four distinct dialects
These dialects are Lower and Upper Bal in the Inguri region, and Lentekh and Lashkh in the Tskhenistskhali region; as those languages are unwritten, Georgian and Russian are used as literary languages.
Kartvelian languages have many ancient loanwords
These languages have borrowed words from Iranian, Arabic, Greek, and Turkish languages.
Abkhazo-Adyghian family has five languages
This language family consists of Abkhaz, Adyghe, Abaza, Ubykh and Kabardian languages. The Abkhaz language is spoken in Abkhazia, an occupied territory of Georgia, by 113,000 native speakers according to the 1993 census.
Abkhazo-Adyghian languages are spoken mainly in the Middle East
Many citizens living in Turkey, Jordan, Iraq, and Syria speak these languages.
The Ubykh language is extinct
The only trace of this language was found in the vicinity of Tuapse, Russia. It is the only unwritten language in the group.
Nakho-Dagestanian family consist of two languages
As the name suggests, this language group includes Nakh and Dagestanian languages. Nakh language comprises Chechen, Ingush, and Bats. The latter is often referred to as Tsova-Tushian, spoken in the Zemo Alvani and Tusheti regions of Georgia. Both Chechen and Ingush languages are written, while Bats is not and uses Georgian as a literary language.
Bats is severely endangered to extinct
Bats is spoken by no more than 800 people
Only Avar from the Avar-Andi-Dido languages is written
The Avar language, spoken in parts of Dagestan and Azerbaijan, is the literary language for other languages in the group. Small communities speak the language in Chechnya, Georgia, Ukraine, Turkey, and Kazakhstan. Spoken by no more than 762,000 people, the language has been listed by UNESCO as at risk of extinction.
Armenians predominantly speak Indo-European languages
With up to 12 million native speakers, Armenian is the dominant Indo-European language in the region, followed by the Ossetian language.
Several Indo-European languages are spoken in the Caucasus
Greek, Persian, Kurdish, Judeo-Tat, Talysh, and Slavic languages (Ukrainian and Russian) are other Indo-European languages spoken here.
Assyrian is also spoken in the Caucasus
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, brought by Assyrians who fled the Assyrian Genocide during the WWI, is spoken by 30,000 people, while Bohtan Neo-Aramaic is at risk of extinction (about 1,000 people speak it).
Volcanic Iceland Epic Trip
meet our Local Insider
HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN A GUIDE?
WHAT DO YOU LOVE ABOUT YOUR JOB?
It's the personal contact, the personal experiences. I love meeting people from all over the world... I really like getting to know everyone and feeling like I'm traveling with a group of friends.
WHAT DESTINATION IS ON YOUR TRAVEL BUCKET-LIST?
I have so many places on my list, but I would really lobe to go to Africa. I consider myself an “adventure girl” and Africa feels like the ULTIMATE adventure!
Every CULTURE TRIP Small-group adventure is led by a Local Insider just like Hanna.
KEEN TO EXPLORE THE WORLD?
Connect with like-minded people on our premium trips curated by local insiders and with care for the world
Since you are here, we would like to share our vision for the future of travel - and the direction Culture Trip is moving in.
Culture Trip launched in 2011 with a simple yet passionate mission: to inspire people to go beyond their boundaries and experience what makes a place, its people and its culture special and meaningful — and this is still in our DNA today. We are proud that, for more than a decade, millions like you have trusted our award-winning recommendations by people who deeply understand what makes certain places and communities so special.
Increasingly we believe the world needs more meaningful, real-life connections between curious travellers keen to explore the world in a more responsible way. That is why we have intensively curated a collection of premium small-group trips as an invitation to meet and connect with new, like-minded people for once-in-a-lifetime experiences in three categories: Culture Trips, Rail Trips and Private Trips. Our Trips are suitable for both solo travelers, couples and friends who want to explore the world together.
Culture Trips are deeply immersive 5 to 16 days itineraries, that combine authentic local experiences, exciting activities and 4-5* accommodation to look forward to at the end of each day. Our Rail Trips are our most planet-friendly itineraries that invite you to take the scenic route, relax whilst getting under the skin of a destination. Our Private Trips are fully tailored itineraries, curated by our Travel Experts specifically for you, your friends or your family.
We know that many of you worry about the environmental impact of travel and are looking for ways of expanding horizons in ways that do minimal harm - and may even bring benefits. We are committed to go as far as possible in curating our trips with care for the planet. That is why all of our trips are flightless in destination, fully carbon offset - and we have ambitious plans to be net zero in the very near future.