Dates: 475-221 BC
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Looking for an expert's perspective?Uncover my top 3 recommended places from each continent on the map.
1. GuatemalaAn express adventure for those with limited time off. Prepare yourself incredible experiences. You will hike a volcano, visit mayan temples and witness a ceremony and take in beautiful colonial Antigua.
2. BelizeA quick trip not too far away for those seeking a relaxing mini break. You will have plenty of free time to relax but also some awesome activities to experience the rainforest and the caribbean sea.
3. MexicoAn exciting mini trip exploring the lesser known colonial towns of central Mexico. This is hte perfect trip for someone with limited time off and still wants to turn on explorer mode and do something different.
1. EcuadorA remarkable 8 days adventure through the Andes and the Amazon rainforest. The best choice for adventure seekers wishing to visit the 2 most iconic areas of South America, in only 1 week and no flights.
2. PeruAn alternative itinerary to classic Peru, from Cusco to Arequipa. This itinerary is great combination of highlights Cusco and Machu Picchu with the lesser known Arequipa and Colca Canyon.
1. ItalyThe ultimate Italian experience from the vibrant streets of Naples to the breathtaking sceneries of the Amalfi Coast followed by Matera and down to Puglia with its golden beaches, intense flavours and fascinating destinations.
2. ScotlandEmbark on this great adventure starting from London all the way to Scotland with a true Scottish experience made of breathtaking sceneries, whisky tasting and ..lots of fun! Ideal for train lovers and explorers.
3. PortugalA wonderful train journey around Portugal, from the romantic city of Porto to the Douro Valley, to the beautiful Aveiro all the way to Lisbon and Sintra. The perfect trip to train, culinary and culture lovers.
1. South KoreaDiscover incredible temples, mountains and modern cities on this 10 day adventure. This trip is perfect for those seeking immersion in the cuisine, culture and natural wonders of South Korea.
2. ThailandFrom Bankgok to Angkor Wat to Ho Chi Minh City and everything in between - adventure through the heart of South-East Asia. Taste the delights, see history brought to life and unwind on a Mekong River cruise.
3. Sri LankaA fantastic adventure that showcases Sri Lanka's fantastic landscapes, wildlife and flavours. With 3 epic rail journeys, 3 UNESCO heritage sites and time to relax, this trip has loads to offer at a great price
1. MoroccoAn epic journey across Morocco: from Casablanca to Marrakech, through the blue city of Chefchaouen to the wonders of the desert and deep to the High Atlas Mountains - this trip has it all! Ideal for true explorers!
2. EgyptFrom Cairo to Aswan, this trip brings the land of the pharaohs to life. You'll visit the Pyramids, Valley of the Kings and Luxor Temple and cruise down the Nile in style. This is the perfect way to explore Egypt.
The states: Qin, Qi, Chu, Han, Yan, Zhao, and Wei
Notable people: Mencius
Before the Warring States period, China had already been under the rule of three separate dynasties (or two, according to whom you ask). Yet, China didn’t become formally unified until 221 BC. This is due in large part to the Warring States.
The Warring States began when the vassal states of the Zhou dynasty successively declared independence. The collapsing dynasty fractured into over one hundred small states, who each claimed the Mandate of Heaven. This political and spiritual doctrine had already been used for nearly a millennium to legitimize leaders, claiming that Heaven had ordained whomever wished to take power at any given moment.
Gradually, the one hundred-plus states were consolidated into only seven powerful super-states: the Qin, Qi, Chu, Han, Yan, Zhao, and Wei. The Chu and the Qin were the most influential and held the most land, but each state was large enough that it became difficult for any to conquer another and further consolidate power.
Warfare used by the states accordingly became more advanced and much more brutal. Previously, infantries of only 10,000 men were common. Now, each state would deploy nearly 200,000 men per battle. The soldiers fought with new iron weapons like swords and daggers, and archers mounted Mongolian horses. Over the course of the period, nearly 400 battles were fought.
Finally, in 278 BC, the capital of the Chu state fell to Qin armies. With its most formidable opponent now vanquished, the Qin easily continued its domination. One reason the Qin was so successful was because of its adoption of legalist policy. The philosophy of Legalism, which has often been compared to Machiavellian-ism, favors order, security, and stability over questions of morality. Such a policy lent itself well to the Qin’s style of warfare, and the Qin managed to bring all the warring states under its control, declaring a unified Qin dynasty in 221 BC. The Qin dynasty is now considered the first Chinese dynasty and is the dynasty that gives China its name.
Despite the chaos of seven states vying for power for over two hundred years, the Warring States period produced some of China’s most famous and influential literature. The Analects of Confucius and Sun Tzu’s The Art of War, both of which had been circulated orally since the Spring and Autumn period, were only written down during the Warring States period.
Additionally, the Warring States produced Mencius, the most well-known Confucian aside from Confucius himself. Mencius was born in the state of Zou but served as an official and scholar for the state of Qi. His interpretation of Confucianism is considered the orthodox version by many and went on to influence the politics of nearly every Chinese dynasty through history.
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