Baku has a medieval Islamic core surrounded by lavish late 19th and early 20th-century European styles and modern skyscrapers and designs. Layers of history can be unravelled by exploring the architecture in Baku as you pass through Azerbaijan’s different eras.
A brief history of Baku
It’s important to know the city’s story before you experience the historical journey through architecture. Two millennia ago, Zoroastrianism, a type of religion based around worshipping fire, thrived. Ischeri Sheher, the Inner City, grew and became fortified in the 12th-century. The Shirvanshahs resettled in Baku making it the new capital in the 15th-century after an earthquake destroyed Shamakhi.
Endless conflicts followed between the Persians, Ottomans and Imperial Russia. Russia gained control in 1813. The first oil boom in the 19th-century made some wealthy barons who then commissioned large mansions and palaces. The Soviets later ruled for most of the 20th-century. Azerbaijan’s natural resources and their second oil boom pays for the modern skyline today.
The architecture in Baku has four distinct flavours: the medieval inner city, the lavish styles from the first oil exploitation, Soviet neighbourhoods and contemporary designs. Let’s take a look at where to go in Baku to experience each.
Most of the city’s population lived within the walls of Icheri Sheher until the early 19th-century. Oil transformed Baku forever.
Azerbaijan’s history and culture intertwines deeply with fire. From the Zoroastrian worship to the modern day natural gas reserves fuelling the economy and paying for the skyline. If you want to experience contemporary architecture in Baku, Flame Towers are the first stop. The trio of skyscrapers with curved and triangular designs resemble three flickering flames.
Built on a hill, the tallest reaches 182 metres (597 feet) making it both an icon of Baku and the tallest skyscraper in Azerbaijan. The magic starts after dark when the towers light up and alternate between the colours of the Azerbaijan flag and the colour of fire.
Construction finished in 2012 and architect Zaha Hadid has won many awards for her innovate design. The interior holds a museum, conference hall and gallery. If you want to visit this unique style of architecture in Baku, take either the red or green line to Nariman Narimanov metro station. Heydar Aliyev Center is five minutes away on foot.
Opening hours: Tuesday to Sunday from 11:00am to 6:00pm. Closed on Monday.
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