The literature of Pakistan emerged as a distinct entity following the Partition of India and the establishment of Pakistani statehood in 1947. Saadat Hassan Manto's short stories explore the shaping of an independent Pakistani identity following this rift. Khushwant Singh's classic novel Train to Pakistan also shows the lasting effects of partition. Since independence, Pakistan's borders with India and Afghanistan have proven to be particularly prone to violence and conflict. Devla Murphy's travellogue Where the Indus Is Young explores the idyllic Kashmir region that has been marred by an often violent territorial dispute.
Pakistan's history since independence has been marked by political upheaval and regional instability. The violent potential of this political unrest materialised in the 2007 assassination of Benazir Bhutto, the first woman elected as head of state in a Muslim country. In contemporary fiction, too, domestic politics provides fodder for works of literature. Mohammed Hanif whose novel A Case of Exploding Mangoes takes a satirical look at the life and death of former Pakistani president General Zia-ul-Haq. Domestic political upheaval also forms the backdrop for Nadeem Aslam's works, whilst Daniyal Mueenuddin explores the shifting landscape of Pakistan's past and present.
The Golden Age of Pakistan cinema was inaugurated by the rise of colour films in the 1960s. Lollywood, Pakistan’s equivalent of Hollywood, has produced noteworthy films including Jinnah by Jamil Dehlavi, which controversially captured the life of Mohammad Ali Jinnah. Influential contemporary Pakistani directors include Shoaib Mansoor, Sabiha Sumar, and Sharmeen Obaid Chinoy who won an Academy Award in 2012 for her short documentary 'Saving Face'.