The Passion narrative, which relates to the events of Christ’s last week on earth, was a constant focus in early Italian Renaissance painting during Botticini’s time. The climax of The Passion is a crucifixion scene like this one, full of painful emotions such as guilt, intense pity, and grief. In this, Botticini supported the work of contemporary theologians, who urged the faithful to identify with Christ in his sufferings so that they might also hope to share his exaltation at resurrection. In the foreground the Virgin Mary and Mary Magdalene swoon piteously but bravely underneath the figure of Christ, who is in between the two thieves mentioned in some of the New Testament gospels. The crucifixion takes place in the daytime, but there is a darkness in the painting, with dark tumultuous clouds thick with apocalyptic wrath bestriding the scene.
The National Gallery, Trafalgar Square, London, UK, 020 7747 2885
Botticini visualised one popular story with merchants and travellers from the Book of Tobit in the Old Testament Apocrypha. The story tells of Tobit, a devout Jewish man from Nineveh, who was blind and had fallen on hard times, who sent his son Tobias to collect a debt of ten talents of silver from a family member in the city of Media. Raphael, one of the seven Archangels, accompanied the boy, masquerading as a relative named Azariah. Here Raphael is holding Tobias’s hand very lightly. In his other hand Rapheal holds a jar of the medicinal fish gall to cure old Tobit of his blindness. The boy is holding a fish that Tobias had caught during the journey which would help to rid his future wife of demons. The angel in armour is Saint Michael who is a warrior angel – Archistrategos, or chief commander of all the bodiless powers – holding a sword and orb, symbols of authority. The other angel with red wings is Saint Gabriel holding a lily, a symbol of purity. His red wings represent the Holy Spirit. The white dog represents fidelity.
Galleria Piazzale degli Uffizi 6, Florence 50122, Italy, +39 055 2388651
This painting shows seven angels playing musical instruments. They are surrounded by delicate unfurled scrolls with theological and metaphorical latin inscriptions. This celestial orchestra of angels playing instruments – concentus angelorum – are meant to convey divine harmonies of paradise and the Celestial City itself. They allegorically allude to the glory and exhortation of the 150th psalm to praise God through music and musical instruments. Some of the scrollwork quotes the psalm. Botticini paints his angels in a row, each with a different instrument. One plays the bagpipes, another the trumpet. Others play the tambourine, triangle, lyre, lute and flute. This artwork emphasises that angels communicate in a variety of ways as they interact with God and human beings and some of those ways include music as well as speaking, writing, praying and using telepathy . The Scottish philosopher Thomas Carlyle said that ‘Music is well said to be the speech of angels.’
This painting is considered by many to be Botticini’s masterpiece. It shows the Virgin Mary ascending to heaven which is commonly known as the assumption of the virgin. In the centre it shows the disciples gathering around her tomb, which is filled with white lilies. Above, a vast panoramic empyrean dwarfs the Tuscan landscape. It shows three hierarchies and nine orders of angel, each with different characteristics. The figure of Christ receives Mary into the highest circle of Heaven.
The current exhibition: ‘Visions of Paradise: Botticini’s Palmieri Altarpiece’ is on display until the 28th March 2016 at the National Gallery.
By Yasser Kayani