Considered sacred by ancient and modern societies for thousands of years, the olive tree is virtually everywhere in Greece. A sign of peace, the olive branch, when turned into a wreath, was used as a trophy for victorious athletes. The fruit and the oil produced from it have been consumed since ancient times and are a part of everyday life in the Mediterranean country. And at the Acropolis, you will find the most cherished olive tree planted next to the western wing of the Erechteion.
Legend has it that when it came to determining which god would be the patron deity of Athens, both Athena and Poseidon responded as wanting the position. The contest took place in the Acropolis, where both gods were asked to present their gifts to the city. Poseidon went first and raised his trident, smashing it on a rock of the Acropolis, thus, producing salt water. Athena went second and offered an olive tree, a gift the citizens of Athens deemed useful and beautiful; therefore, she became the patron of the city, which was named after her.
While the tree on-site now may not be the original one, it is part of the foundation myth of Athens, which explains why it is so sacred in the eyes of both Athenians and Greeks.
In ancient times, when the Persians burned down the entire city of Athens, including the Acropolis, in 480 BC, historians claim that the olive tree had already sprouted a new branch, symbolizing the quick recovery of Athenians, even in the face of adversity. Rumor has it that some seeds from this tree were even planted across the wider region of Attica so that the olive trees surrounding the city of Athens would have a bit of the original sacred tree inside of them as well.
More recently, in 1952, members of the American School of Archaeology replanted the tree with a branch that had been saved from destruction by the German army during World War II.