Approximately 60% of Malaysians speak English proficiently. English was taught in schools and used in business and administration until 1956. Independence saw a change from the colonial language in favour of Bahasa Malaysia. This legacy not only gives the nation and citizens world-wide opportunities, but it also boosts tourism and business. However, for one reason or another, Malaysia’s English proficiency in the 21st-century has started to decline.
Malaysia produces vast amounts of rubber with 2017 exports accounting for almost $7 billion (RM27 billion). Readers might ask what this has to do with the British in Malaysia. The Brits brought rubber trees from Brazil in the late 19th-century. Industrialising Europe needed rubber to meet the ever increasing demand in the automotive business. The British responded with a rubber boom in the early 20th-century.
People have mined tin in Perak for thousands of years. The Portuguese and Dutch attempted to extract the mineral too. But they only mined the surface deposits. The British in Malaysia turned tin mining into a huge industry towards the end of the 19th-century. Malaysia quickly became the leading exporter accounting for 31% of global production, until the tin market crashed in the 1980s. In some ways, as the reader will see below, British tin transformed Malaysia in many ways both directly and indirectly.
Multiculturalism can be a wonderful thing. Malaysia boasts a vast number of ethnicities who identify as Malaysian. Walk through different neighbourhoods and see Malays, both Muslim and Hindu Indians, Chinese, Borneo’s indigenous groups along with Filipinos, Indonesians, Bangladeshis and Burmese. Flashback to the late 19th-century and find a very different set of demographics. As the tin mining industry flourished, 1.5 million Chinese moved to work in Malaysia between 1881 and 1900. A substantial number of Southern Indian Tamils were encouraged to migrate by the British, to work in the rubber plantations in the early 20th-century too.
Believe it or not, the British in Malaysia influenced Malaysian cuisine. But the Brits didn’t change the local palate directly like the Portuguese and Spanish did in their colonies. Instead, the demographic shift indirectly had an influence on Malaysian food forever. Just think, without the waves of migration, Indian and Chinese cuisines would be much less common. Migrant workers brought their food to Malaysia.
In pre-colonial times, the primary form of movement was on foot, by boat or riding elephants. The rise of both tin and rubber industries created a need for better transportation to take the commodities to the port. Railways were built in both West and East Malaysia to cater for Malaysia’s growing exports. As the colonialists got wealthier and the automotive industry took shape, more people wanted cars. The rise in vehicles, inspired by the new concept of leisure driving, contributed to the development of better roads. After all, a Governor can’t travel through the mud! Before cars, people used bicycles and rickshaws.
As Malaysia entered a golden age in the early 20th-century, the increasingly prosperous Brits began to build lavish buildings. Many remain today including Perak’s Kellies Castle, Penang’s City Hall, Kuala Lumpur’s and Ipoh’s Railway Stations along with a few British churches and cathedrals. Many colonial buildings stand in Malaysia.