Equatorial Guinea gained independence from Spain in 1968. In recent years, this small country has become one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, which is largely fuelled by oil exploitation. Despite this growth, little of that wealth has trickled down to the general population. President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, who is known for his lavish lifestyle, ousted then-President Francisco Macias Nguema in 1979 and has held power since. In 2002, President Obiang Nguema won the national election having received a reported 100% of the vote after all opposition candidates withdrew in protest.
Due to its period as a Spanish colony, Equatorial Guinea's official language are Spanish, French, and Portuguese, and its culture reflects both traditional tribal influences and that of Spain. Equitoguinean writers include María Nsué Angüe, Raquel Ilonbé, and Donato Ndongo-Bidyogo who writes of Spanish Guinea. Juan Tomás Avila Laurel is amongst a new generation of emergent writers that also includes Justo Bolekia Boleká and Francisco Zamora Loboch.
The Fang and Bubi are dominant ethnic groups in the country and music is an important part of their cultures. The duo Hijas del Sol, who perform in Bubi and Spanish, is popular in both Africa and Spain.