Chad, home to over 200 ethnic groups, has a diverse culture that has been influenced by its position along the trans-Saharan trade routes as well as by its period as a French colony, where it was part of French Equatorial Africa. Chad's current president and head of the Patriotic Salvation Movement is Idriss Déby who came to power in a rebellion in 1990 against the authoritarian rule of Hissène Habré.
Due to Chad's political instability, Chadian literature has been spearheaded by authors writing from abroad. Joseph Brahim Seid, formerly Minister of Justice, is the author of Told By Starlight In Chad. Esaie Toingar's memoir Teenager in the Chad Civil War is a harrowing tale of survival in warfare. Mario Azevedo has published several books about Chad's recent history.
The best-known Chadian film is Daratt (Dry Season), directed by Chad-born Mahamat-Saleh Haroun, which explores the emotions of guilt and revenge that wrack Atim whose father was brutally killed during Chad's 40-years of recurrent civil war. Haroun's other films include Bye Bye Africa, Abouna, and A Screaming Man that won the Jury Prize at the 2010 Cannes Film Festival. Chadian director Issa Serge Coelo has been nominated for France's César Award. His films include Daresalam and Tartina City.